CITY BRANDING AND THE TOURIST GAZE: PENGEMBANGAN WISATA KOTA

Afrila Mulyati Siregar Siregar, Suharyono Suharyono, Andriani Kusumawati

Abstract


The purpose of this study is to present the conceptual framework of city branding that combines it with the concept of tourist gaze as a tourist perspective which makes it a framework for attracting tourists, investors and new residents, especially in city tourism. This study explores the essence of city branding that is linked to urban tourism through the theory of "Tourist Gaze" by John Urry, then links with the city image, and the relationship between city imaging. Branding has symbolic value because branding is a strategy to provide places, cities, images, and cultural meanings. Branding shows the need for individuality and emotional connection with the environment in the context of globalization, thus providing depth and originality of the city or its distinctive character. .


Keywords


city branding; tourism marketing and the tourist gaze

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbasian, S. (2019). Solo travellers to city destinations: an exploratory study in Sweden. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 5(1), 35–50. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-01-2018-0001

Abbasian, S., Basáñez, R. P., Ingram, H., Garner, B., Ayala, C., Gaur, J., Amini, M., Banerjee, P., & Gupta, R., … Satyendra Singh Tapas Ranjan Dash Irina Vashko. (2011). The future of city tourism. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(1), 409–416. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-08-2015-0086

Anholt, S. (2008). Place branding: Is it marketing, or isn’t it? Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.6000088

Basáñez, R. P., dan Ingram, H. (2013). Film and tourism: The imagined place and the place of the imagined. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 5(1), 39–54. https://doi.org/10.1108/17554211311292439

Cohen, L. (2011). Chapter 24. Research Methods in Education, 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.46.5.506

Garner, B., dan Ayala, C. (2019). Regional tourism at the farmers’ market: consumers’ preferences for local food products. International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research, 13(1), 37–54. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-07-2018-0095

Gaur, J., Amini, M., Banerjee, P., dan Gupta, R. (2016). Qualitative Market Research : An International Journal Article information : Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 19(4), 426–432. https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-06-2016-0055

Gillespie, A. (2006). Tourist Photography and the Reverse Gaze. Ethos, 34(3), 343–366. https://doi.org/10.1525/eth.2006.34.3.343

Hospers, G. J. (2009). Lynch, Urry and city marketing: Taking advantage of the city as a built and graphic image. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5(3), 226–233. https://doi.org/10.1057/pb.2009.10

Huang, W. J., King, B., dan Suntikul, W. (2017). VFR Tourism and the Tourist Gaze: Overseas Migrant Perceptions of Home. International Journal of Tourism Research, 19(4), 421–434. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2104

J.R., B. R. (2011). Tourism experience management research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(4), 419–438. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111111129968

Kavaratzis, M., dan Ashworth, G. J. (2005). City branding: An effective assertion of identity or a transitory marketing trick? Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie, 96(5), 506–514. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9663.2005.00482.x

Kim, S., & O’Connor, N. (2011). A cross-cultural study of screen-tourists’ profiles. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 3(2), 141–158. https://doi.org/10.1108/17554211111123005

Lynch, K (1960), the image of the city, the MIT Press, Cambridge, united states.

Maitland, R. (2010). Everyday life as a creative experience in cities. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(3), 176–185. https://doi.org/10.1108/17506181011067574

Martin, D., Woodside, A. G., & Dehuang, N. (2007). Etic interpreting of naïve subjective personal introspections of tourism behavior: Analyzing visitors’ stories about experiencing Mumbai, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1(1), 14–44. https://doi.org/10.1108/17506180710729592

Postma, A., Buda, D. M., dan Gugerell, K. (2017). The future of city tourism. Journal of Tourism Futures, 3(2), 95–101. https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-09-2017-067

Richardson, M., dan Armitage, J. (2012). The Experience of Culture. The Experience of Culture. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446219874

Simoes, C and Dibb, S (2001) “rethinking the brand concept: new brand orientation”, corporate communications, vol. 6, no.4, pp. 217-224.

Stone, L. S., dan Nyaupane, G. P. (2019). The Tourist Gaze: Domestic versus International Tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 58(5), 877–891. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287518781890

Tasci, A, Kozak, M (2006) “destination brand vs destination image: do we know whate we mean?” journal of vacation marketing vol. 12, no.4, pp 299-317

Urry, J., dan Larsen, J. (2011). The tourist gaze 3.0. In The Tourist Gaze 3.0. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446251904

Urry, J. (1990). The Tourist Gaze. California: Sage publication.

Urry, J. (1995). Consuming place. New york: Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Wiley, J. (2007). The Formation of the Tourist’ s Loyalty How Does It Affect Price Discounts? International Journal of Tourism ResearchWiley, J. (2007). The Formation of the Tourist’ s Loyalty How Does It Affect Price Discounts? International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(August), 453–464. Https://Doi.Org/10.1002/Jtr, 9(August), 453–464. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr

Woodside, A. G., dan Kozak, M. (2014). Primer to tourists’ perceptions and assessments including how-to-build formal, implementable, models of the tourist gaze. In Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research (Vol. 8). https://doi.org/10.1108/S1871317320140000008001


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.